http://www.dai-hard.com

William Abraham (Mabon) is regarded as the first working-class MP. He won his seat in 1885, representing Rhondda as a Liberal, and retained the seat at seven succesive elections, remaining an MP until 1920.

In 1877, he became full-time organizer of the Cambrian Miners' Association, and in 1888, he had won a holiday for the miners on the first Monday of every month - Mabon's Day. Mabo's day was abolished after the bitter strike of 1898. Immediately after the strike, the South Wales Miners' Federation was formed and mabon became active in this union as well, becoming its president.

William Abraham (Mabon)

King Arthur, who, if he existed, was a military leader in the 5. or 6. century. His name became a focus of Celtic legend, apparently first developed in Brittany.

B

Shirley Bassey. From Cardiff - the Adamsdown area, I believe - definitely NOT from the Tiger Bay / Butetown area, as widely misreported.
Shirley Bassey

Batchelor

Aneurin Bevan. Left school at 13 to work in Tytryst Colliery. Becoming active in the trade unions, he became chairman of the MIners' Lodge at the age of 19. Aneurin Bevan

He did win a scholarship to the Central labour College, but on the completion of his studies, his old employer refused to re-employ him. He spent three years unemployed, found work eventually at Bedwellty Colliery, but that was closed down within a year. After a brief spell of unemployment, he found work as a Union official, in the fateful year of 1926 - the year of the General Strike, the miners continuing to strike for a further six months after the General Strike ended.

He was elected to Monmouthshire Council in 1928, and then became an MP in 1929, representing Ebbw Vale.

He argued forcibly that Britain should support the democratic government in Spain, but was expelled from the party for this viewpoint (along with Stafford Cripps).

During the Second World War, he became a notable critic opponent of Churchill (as he had been right from the beginning of his career as an MP because of Churchill's actions during the General Strike).

During the 1945 election, he is quoted as saying : We have been the dreamers, we have been the sufferers, now we are the builders. We enter this campaign at this general election, not merely to get rid of the Tory majority. We want the complete political extinction of the Tory Party."

He became Minister of Health in the new government, instituting the National Health Service. In 1951, he became Minister of Labour, but resigned when the Labour Government decided to introduce some charges for prescriptions, and other articles.

From 1956, he appeared to be making some compromises with new Leader of the Labour Party, Hugh Gaitskell, and shocked many people by opposing Britain's scapping of Nuclear Arms, in 1957. He became Deputy Leader of the Party, but died in 1960.

Some other quotes :

  • All Tories are vermin
  • [Winston Churchill] does not talk the language of the 20th century but that of the 18th. He is still fighting Blenheim all over again. His only answer to a difficult situation is send a gun-boat.Speech at Labour Party Conference, Scarborough, 2 October (1951)
  • I read the newspapers avidly. It is my one form of continuous fiction.
  • Freedom is the by-product of economic surplus.
  • The whole art of Conservative politics in the 20th century is being deployed to enable wealth to persuade poverty to use its political freedom to keep wealth in power.

Richard Burton Richard Burton

C

John Cale of the Velvet Underground. From Garnant, nr Ammanford.

Ceiriog (John Hughes), poet. Born in 1832, in the Ceiriog Valley. After working in Manchester, from the 1860's he published poetry while simultaneously working as stationmaster and superindendant on the railways (Llanidloes, Tywyn, Caersws). His collections include "Oriau'r Bore" (Morning Hours), "Cant o Ganeuon" (One Hundred Songs), and "Y Bardd a'r Cerddor" (The Poet and the Musician). In the 1860s, they were the best-selling books in Wales, behind the Bible. They remain popular today, especially in recitative competitions at many Eisteddfodau.

Walter Coffin In 1852, he became MP for Cardiff - Wales's first non-conformist MP. His success also ended the Bute control of the seat.

A. J. Cook

John Cory

William Crawshay

D

Lynn Davies from Nantymoel. He won an Olympic gold medal at Tokio 1964 for the Long Jump, with a jump of 8.07 meters. His personal best was 8.23 meters (which I think is still a British record), although obviously he was eclipsed by Bob Beamon's 8.90 meters in the Mexico Olympics.

John Dee 1572-1608, astronomer and alchemist.

Roald Dahl known as author of children's stories, but also wrote things like the screenplay for the Bond film You Only Live Twice .

During the war, he was a pilot.

Quote from 'Have I Got Good News For You' : 'Dahl's father admits - I couldn't spell Ronald'.

Clement Davies

David Davies

Idris Davies Originally a miner in Rhymney, he became a teacher in London. 1938 Gwalia Deserta

S. O. Davies long-standing MP for Merthyr.

William Henry (W H) Davies From Newport, poet and author of Autobiography of a Supertramp, charting his adventures as a hobo in America at the end of the 19th century (1893-94) . A lot of his poetry told of his love for the Gwent countryside. One well-know poem was Leisure, opening:

What is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare?
No time to stand beneath the boughs
And stare as long as sheep and cows...

E

Dave Edmunds Cardiff musician

Morgan Edwards of Pontypool. Joint founder of Brown University, Rhode Island.

William Edwards built the single-span bridge at Pontypridd.

Tom (Thomas Edward) Ellis MP for Meirionydd from 1886 at the age of 27. He died at the age of 40.

Hedd Wyn (Ellis Humphrey Evans) Ellis Humphrey Evans (Hedd Wynn). In 1917, the large Welsh community on Merseyside staged the National Eisteddfod at Birkenhead. The winner of the Chair was Ellis Humphrey Evans (Hedd Wynn) who had been killed on 31 July 1917 in France fighting with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. The winning chair was draped in black. A collection of the dead poet's work, "Cerddi'r Bugail" (Poems of the Shepherd) was published in 1918

He lived as a shepherd at Yr Ysgwrn farm in Trawsfynydd. He won several local eisteddfod chairs, and very nearly won the chair at the 1916 National Eisteddfod. Reluctantly conscripted into the Army in 1917, he wrote his award-winning poem Yr Arwr (The Hero) whilst in training, completing all the entry details while on service in France. He died on the first day of the Battle of Passchendale. Click on his photo for more details.

Charles Evans The first attempts were made in 1929 but the summit of Kanchenjunga was finally reached in 1955 by a British expedition led by the Welsh educator and mountaineer Charles Evans, one of the leaders of the expedition that had conquered Mount Everest.

Gwynfor Evans Plaid Cymru MP from 1966, until 1970. Regained the seat in 1974, until 1979. Threatened to go on hunger strike unless a Welsh-language TV station was set up.

John Evans from Waunfawr. Inspired by the Madoc legend, he emigrated to America where he explored the Missouri : he drew maps used by Lewis and Clark, before dying at the age of 29.

George Everest from Gwernvale, Crickhowell, Powys. Surveyor-General of India and in 1865 the mountain was named after him.

F

John Frost Chartist leader, particularly known for leading the protest in of 1839, when troops killed 22 people. For this action he was transported to Australia.

Frost established himself as the leader of the supporters of universal suffrage in Newport. In 1835 he was elected as a councillor and also became a magistrate. The following year he was elected mayor. However, his aggressive behaviour apparently upset a lot of people and he was replaced as mayor in 1837.

In May 1838 Henry Vincent was arrested for making inflammatory speeches. Frost planned to march on Newport where the Chartists planned to demand the release of Vincent.

When John Frost and the 3,000 marchers arrived in Newport they discovered that the authorities had made more arrests and were holding several Chartists in the Westgate Hotel - the Chartists immediately marched to the hotel. Twenty-eight soldiers been placed inside the Westgate Hotel and when the order was given they began firing into the crowd. Afterwards it was estimated that over twenty men were killed and another fifty were wounded.

Frost and others were arrested and charged with high treason. In a 'trial' in Monmouth presided over by Charles Rolls' grandfather, several were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. After protests, execution was commuted to imprisonment or transportation. John Frost was sent to Tasmania where he worked for three years as a clerk and eight years as a school teacher.

Chartists continued to campaign for the release of Frost. Thomas Duncombe pleaded Frost's case in the House of Commons but attempt to secure a pardon in 1846 was unsuccessful. Duncombe managed, in 1854, to persuade the Prime Minister, Lord Aberdeen, to grant Frost a pardon but there was a stipulation that Frost must not enter British territory - Frost and his daughter, Catherine, who had joined him in Tasmania, went to live in the United States. He toured the USA lecturing on the unfairness of the British system of government.

In 1856 the government changed its mind and Frost was allowed to return to Britain.

G

Ryan Giggs footballer

Jac Glan y Gors (John Jones) from Denbighshire. Welsh equivalent of Thomas Paine. He kept the Kings Head in Ludgate.

Owain Glyndwr

Robert Graves Only one of two people from Harlech to volunteer for the First World War.

Charlotte Guest The first of the Mabinogien volumes was published in 1838 and by 1845 the tales had appeared in seven parts. In 1852 John Guest died and Lady Charlotte took over at the helm of the Dowlais Iron Works.

John Josiah Guest

Gwenallt

H

Augusta Hall (Lady Llanover). She invented the 'Welsh National Dress'. Wife of the ironmaster who gave his name to Big Ben.

Michael Heseltine From Swansea. He was criticized by a Commons Select Committee in 1973 for giving contradictory answers to questions, resigned from the British Government in 1986 over the Westland Affair and was planning to mislead parliament over Cruise Missiles according to the testimony of civil servant Sarah Tisdall who was jailed for leaking this information. Wanted to close Tower Colliery down as unprofitable, but after much protesting, the colliery is still open and working successfully.

Mary Hopkin
Anthony Hopkins only person to win an Oscar for playing a cannibal. A usual cliche is to point out that "Silence of the Lambs" has a slightly different meaning in Wales.
Anthony Hopkins

Arthur Horner Only Welshman to join Connolly's Citizen Army.

Geoffrey Howe Deputy Prime Minister 1989-90.

Billy Hughes from Llansanffraid-ym-Mechan. Became the Labour Prime Minister of Australia 1915.

Charles Evan Hughes son of a Tredegar man. Republican candidate for the Presidency 1916.

John Hughes see Ceiriog

Mark Hughes footballer

Richard Hughes, Born 1900. Welsh author and dramatist: "Middle age snuffs out more talent than ever wars or sudden deaths do."

I

Dafydd Iwan

J

Colin Jackson, Athlete. Gold medallist in the 110m hurdles at the 1993 World Championships.

Augustus John, Painter

Gwen John

Thomas Johnes, Hafod As a Crown Steward, it was his job to stop encroachment on Crown land, but in fact he took the opportunity to annex about 30 km2 of Crown land to his own estate in Cardigan. He died in debt by about £ 50,000 and his estates had to be sold.

George Jones, son of Welsh immigrants from Llanwyddelan, Powys. Co-founder of the New York Times in 1851.

Gwyn Jones

Inigo Jones was reputedly born at Llanrwst.

Lewis Jones Communist spokesman for the NUWM (National Union of Unemployed). Once the only person present at a Moscow meeting who did not stand up when Stalin entered the room. Wrote the novel We Live.

Mari Jones

Michael D. Jones

Terry Jones of Monty Python fame

Tom Jones Tom Jones got his first "break" at the Treforest Non-Political Club, Wood St, Pontypridd.

William Jones of Pontypool. Former actor and Chartist leader.

Catherine Zeta Jones from Swansea

Brian Josephson from Cardiff. Winner of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics. The discoverer of “tunnelling” between superconductors. He has spent his entire academic career at Cambridge University, where he was appointed Professor of Physics in 1974. He predicted the Josephson effect in 1962, while still a research student: if two superconductors were separated by a very thin layer, about 1-2 nanometres, of an electrical insulator, the combination would act as a superconductor and would allow a small resistanceless current to pass through the insulating layer. These junctions can act as rapid switches and, because large numbers of them can be manufactured in a very small volume, they can be used in computers and in SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices), which are used as magnetometers in highly sensitive geophysical measurements. The Josephson effect has been used to determine the constant e/h (the charge of the electron divided by Planck's constant), and to define a quantum standard of voltage.

L

T.E. Lawrence of Arabia. Born in Tremadoc and lived the first thirteen months of his life there, before moving to Scotland. Despite having no Welsh ancestry, his Welsh birth nevertheless entitled him to some sort of scholarship to Jesus College, Oxford (Oxford's 'Welsh' college).

Saunders Lewis

Lewis Lewis Leader of the Merthyr Uprising. Bilingual. taught his fellow convicts to read English while on the prison ship John. Lewsyn yr Heliwr.

Lady Llanover invented the 'Welsh National Dress'. Wife of the ironmaster who gave his name to Big Ben.

Richard Llewellyn Native of St. Davids. Author of How Green was my Valley.

Sampson Lloyd from Dolobran, nr. Milford Haven. Founder of Lloyd's bank.

David Lloyd George In 1890, at the age of 27, he became MP for Caernarfon Boroughs.

Plusses :-

  • pensions
  • abolition of the power of veto of the House of Lords
  • opposition to the Boer War (for which his safety was threatened)
  • support for involving the Soviet Union in the Paris Peace Conference (against his government who supported the sending of troops into Russia to try and overthrow the Bolsheviks).

Minuses :-

  • the mass murder of World War 1
  • The prosecution of a political enemy Alice Wheldon in 1916, on a trumped-up charge of attempting to murder the Prime Minister (see History Today, April 2007
  • the attempt to suppress the Irish independence movement (and for sending the Black and Tans in)
  • opposition to the introduction of proportional representation
  • support for Hitler.
  • making the comment that "Britain reserves the right to bomb niggers" In 1902 Lloyd George was giving his point of view to Parliament around the possibility of the British government signing a treaty that prohibited the use of air power to kill civilians in any future wars.
  • Diluting the granting of universal male suffrage by simultaneously allowing female suffrage on the same property-based criteria previously used for males. The simultaneous creation of separate seats for some University graduates (in addition to the ones that already existed for Oxford and Cambridge), allowing these people more than one vote.
  • outlawing the police union and making it illegal for the police to go on strike (in 1919), while putting Liverpool under martial law to counteract the 1919 strike which had been well supported in that city - during the police strike of 1918, he had led the police to believe that the union would receive recognition once the war was over.

Megan Lloyd George
Megan Lloyd George 1929 Liberal MP for Anglesey until 1951. In 1957, became the Labour MP for Carmarthen.

M

Cerys Mathews

Ray Milland from Neath. Won an Oscar for Lost Weekend.

Alfred Mond Monsanto

Henry Morgan Pirate and Governor of Jamaica.

Iolo Morgannwg (Edward Williams). He created the Gorsedd of bards, which was first held on Primrose Hill in London, in 1792. His motto of No Strength but Brotherhood became the motto of Merthyr.

N

Ivor Novello from Cardiff. Composer of the song Keep the Home Fires Burning.

O

Robert Owen Spent his first ten years and last year in Newtown.

P

Joseph Parry First Professor of Music at Aberystwyth in 1872.

Dic Penderyn (Richard Lewis) hanged at Cardiff in connection with the Merthyr Tydfil riots of 1831.

Thomas Pennant naturalist. A friend of Joseph Banks - a friendship which resulted in the East coast of Australia being called New South Wales.

John Plumbe early American railways.

William Price Chartist and proponent of cremation.

John Prescott

John Prescott, born in Prestatyn. Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1994, becoming later Deputy Prime Minister.

R

Robert Recorde Pioneer of commercial arithmetic. Wrote a few of books which appeared in the 1540s and 50s, and is usually acclaimed as being the person who introduced the '=' sign. He was also a doctor and ran the Bristol Mint. In the 1550s, he professed support for the Copernican theory.

His arithmetical methods were apparently in some importance in helping the introduction of the present-day arabic numerals. Support for the continued use of Roman numerals was strong at the time (and similar support for stupid ideas still continues to this day).

excerpt from 'The Parrot's Theorem, by Denis Guedj

'In a poorly furnished office lit by a single candle, Robert Recorde sat poring over a page dark with scribbled numbers and shapes. Quill in hand, he thought for a long time, then, dipping the quill into the inkpot decisively, he drew a short horizontal line. He lifted the quill and carefully drew a second, parallel line above the first.

'He set down the quill, picked up the paper and held it at arm's length. He studied the symbol he had just drawn. In front of him was the most famous symbol in the history of mathematics, the equals sign. Two short parallel lines separated by a thin cushion of air:

=

The year ..was 1557, and for some time mathematicians had been discussing the need for a symbol to replace the word aequalis -"equal" - in written equations. What could they use to symbolize this familiar and yet complex concept? Later, Recorde was asked why he had chosen this particular symbol. "I chose parallel lines, because they are twins and nothing is more alike than a pair of twins." '

Jonathon and Lea exchanged a look. What the Liard twins saw when they looked at one another were their differences: the tiny differences which simply heightened their similarity. They were not the same in the sense that two printed books are the same, but in the sense that two manuscripts written by the same scribe are similar.

'When did the plus and minus signs get invented?' asked Lea.

'Hang on a minute, we haven't finished with Recorde yet', replied Jonathan. 'Listen: shortly after inventing the equals sign, Recorde was thrown into prison for unpaid debts. He died there some months later.'

'You're not serious?' Lea laughed. 'You mean the guy who invents the equals sign dies in prison because what he spends isn't equal to what he earns?'

'One of the little lines must have been longer than the other.'

'More like "All mathematicians are created equal, but this one was more equal than others".'

Hopkyn Rees of Cwmafan. Missionary. He established a language school in Peking in 1869, which grew into Beijing University.

Henry Richard of Tregaron.

Bartholomew Roberts (Black Bat, Baiti Ddu) pirate, from Little Newcastle, Dyfed. Killed by British Navy in 1722 off West Africa. Reputed to be the first pirate to fly the skull and crossbones.

Kate Roberts

Charles Rolls
Charles Rolls from Monmouth. Nowadays better known as one half of Rolls-Royce, he was the first person to fly the Channel and back without stopping. He died in a flying accident in 1910, thus becoming the first Briton to die in such a manner. His grandfather sentenced the Chartist leaders of 1839 to be hung, drawn and quartered.

Ian Rush footballer

S

Sarah Siddons, actor born in Brecon as Sarah Kemble in 1755, while her parents were on tour as itinerant actors (the family originated from Hereford). Her birthplace is now the pub Sarah Siddons in Brecon, although you leave by the back door, the sign there still has the previos name of 'Shoulder of Mutton'.

Shaking Stevens

Henry Stanley Born in Denbigh, the illegitimate son of John Rowlands and Elisabeth Parry. At the age of five he was consigned to the St. Asaph Workhouse, where he received a fair education and where he became a voracious reader. In 1857 he ran away to sea and led a roving life in America. At the close of the Civil War, he went to Turkey and Asia Minor as a newspaper correspondent. In 1867-1868 he was a special correspondent for the New York Herald, and it was this newspaper that charged him with finding Livingstone, in Africa. He later explored Africa, often sponsored by Belgium, playing a small part in establishment of Belgian Congo. To daughery, bd ------- Stanley, Sir  Henry Morton  (1841-1904), explorer and journalist, was born on 28 January 1841 at Denbigh, where he was baptized as John Rowlands, the illegitimate son of John Rowlands (c.1815-1854), a farmer, and Elizabeth Parry (1822-1886), daughter of Moses Parry (d. 1846), a butcher and grazier. Of his putative father little is known. His mother was to have four more children before she married. Stanley spent most of his early years in the care of his grandfather Moses. Following his grandfather's death in June 1846, he was boarded out in a neighbouring cottage near Denbigh Castle. In February 1847 his mother's family halted the payments for his upkeep, and with no one else being willing or able to support him, he was taken to the workhouse at St Asaph. There he remained until May 1856, subject to the rigours of a poor law education. Early years Most of Stanley's schooling took place in the workhouse, where he read the Bible and the religious literature provided. He learned basic geography, arithmetic, and drawing, as well as doing some gardening, tailoring, and woodwork. Yet his memories of the workhouse, as narrated in his posthumously published Autobiography (1909), are overwhelmingly negative. His modern biographers have drawn attention to its more obviously fictional elements, including a dramatic account of his supposed 'escape' from the institution after years of abuse. Although the details of this story may be unreliable, its significance for the moulding of Stanley's character and future life is unmistakable. The autobiography gives full rein to the bitterness he felt at his early abandonment to the workhouse system, the remedy of a 'dull-witted nation'  (p. 11). Stanley's shame about his illegitimacy, and resentment at his treatment as a child, fuelled an intense feeling of isolation, together with an overpowering ambition to prove his worth to the world. Having left the workhouse in May 1856, aged fifteen, Stanley was employed by his cousin, Moses Owen, as a pupil teacher at the national school in Brynford, where he learned mathematics, Latin, and English grammar. He subsequently worked for Moses' mother, Mary Owen, who kept a farm and inn near Tremeirchion. In August 1858 he travelled to Liverpool, to stay with another aunt, Maria, and her husband Thomas Morris. Unable to secure a hoped-for job as a clerk, he worked as an assistant in a haberdasher's shop and as a butcher's boy. In December 1858 he took a position as a cabin-boy on an American packet ship, the Windermere. Once on board it became clear that he was to be employed as a deck hand, and after a laborious journey of seven weeks he jumped ship at New Orleans. Soon after his arrival he was befriended by a cotton trader named Henry Hope Stanley, for whom he worked for about a year. Henry Hope Stanley, though born in Stockport, had emigrated to the United States in 1836, and had established a substantial trading business along the Mississippi River. He effectively adopted the young John Rowlands, encouraging him to further his education and providing him with a responsible job on his plantation at Arcola. Thereafter, the man who had been baptized John Rowlands adopted the name Henry Stanley as his own, though he seems to have tried out several versions of his middle name (including Morelake and Moreland) before settling on Morton. Although Stanley records in his autobiography that his surrogate father died in Cuba in 1861, Henry Hope Stanley in fact lived until 1878. It seems the two men separated after an argument in 1860, after which the young Stanley was sent by his adopted father to work on a plantation in Arkansas. He did not last long there, however, and spent the next few months working in a trader's store at Cypress Bend. In July 1861, two months after Arkansas had joined the Confederacy, Stanley volunteered for the 'Dixie greys'. His motives are not exactly clear; indeed he was later to describe this act as a 'grave blunder'  (Autobiography, 167). He served for nearly ten months, until the great battle of Shiloh, near the Tennessee River, in April 1862, during which he was taken prisoner. After being held as a prisoner of war at Camp Douglas, near Chicago, for six weeks, he secured his release by enlisting in the United States artillery. It was only through an attack of dysentery, which led to his being discharged, that he avoided fighting against his former allies. After further adventures, including a job on board an oyster schooner in Chesapeake Bay, he obtained work on a sailing ship bound for Britain. He arrived in Liverpool in November 1862, poor and dishevelled, and visited his mother, now married to the father of two of her children, at the village of Glascoed near Abergele. But his mother's reaction was far from welcoming, and (with the help of relatives of Henry Hope Stanley) he returned dejectedly to America. For the next year he was a sailor in the merchant navy, voyaging between Boston and the Mediterranean. He was employed for some time as a lawyer's clerk in New York. In July 1864 he joined the federal navy, entering the civil war for a third time. In December 1864 he saw action off Fort Fisher, North Carolina, during the bombardment of one of the last Confederate strongholds on the Atlantic. In February 1865 he apparently deserted the fleet at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and returned to New York. Journalism and early travels It seems that Stanley's first journalistic assignment was in June 1865, in St Louis, when the Missouri Democrat employed him on a freelance basis. He reported on his travels to the Rocky Mountains and California, and then to Colorado, where he took a variety of other jobs. There he teamed up with William Cook, another aspiring journalist, and together with Lewis Noe, a young shipmate who had served with him in the federal navy, they made plans for a journey through Turkey, central Asia and China. Travelling on a fruit ship, they arrived in Smyrna in western Turkey on 28 August 1866. After only two weeks of their journey, the three men found themselves embroiled in a violent encounter with local Turks, resulting in the rape of Noe. Narrowly escaping with his life, Stanley was eventually able to obtain the assistance of the American minister at Constantinople, who secured compensation for their treatment. On his way back to America, Stanley revisited his Welsh birthplace, where he dressed in a naval officer's uniform made up in Constantinople, claiming to be a civil war hero. As well as seeing his mother, Stanley paid a visit to the St Asaph workhouse, where the children were given a special tea in his honour. Stanley's career as a journalist took a decisive turn in 1867. On his return to America he was taken on as a special correspondent by the Missouri Democrat, covering General Hancock's military expedition against the Cheyenne and the Sioux peoples in Kansas and Nebraska, and the subsequent peace conferences between General Sherman and the Plains Indians. (His dispatches during this period were reprinted in his Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia, published in 1895.) Stanley's colourful reports established his growing reputation as a newspaper reporter, and having earned a modest sum from his writings, he decided to embark on a more adventurous mission. In December 1867 he persuaded James Gordon Bennett of the New York Herald to give him a commission as its special correspondent on the British expedition to Abyssinia. He left New York almost immediately, arriving in Suez in January 1868. Having joined Sir Robert Napier's forces at Annesley Bay, in the Horn of Africa, he marched with them for two months, witnessing the storming of Tewodros's fortress at Magdala. His sensational dispatches were the first to reach Europe, and he was soon employed on a permanent basis by the Herald. Over the next year, he sent reports on the construction of the Suez Canal, on an anti-Turkish uprising in Crete, and on the revolution against Queen Isabella in Spain. He visited his mother in north Wales in October 1868, and in the following March she accompanied him (with one of her daughters) on a trip to Paris. How Stanley found Livingstone The assignment which was to make Stanley famous, the 'finding' of David Livingstone, was the outcome of lengthy deliberations. In October 1868 James Gordon Bennett asked Stanley to go out to Africa to interview Livingstone, who had not been heard of for two years. Stanley travelled soon afterwards to Alexandria, and later Aden, where he spent two fruitless months waiting for news of Livingstone, occupying his time by reading and writing, and trying-in vain-to give up smoking. After a period of six months back in Spain, he returned to Paris, where he met Gordon Bennett in the Grand Hotel on 16 October 1869. The story of Gordon Bennett's renewed request to 'find Livingstone' was made famous by Stanley in his book How I Found Livingstone (1872). Eager to secure a return on his investment, Bennett instructed Stanley to report on his travels through central Asia to India, before proceeding to Zanzibar; had Livingstone been located in the meantime, it seems that Stanley might even have found himself on a mission to 'find' the Dalai Lama. In November 1869 Stanley was in Egypt for the opening of the Suez Canal. He later filed a series of colourful reports on his travels through Egypt, Palestine, Turkey, the Crimea, Georgia, and Persia, reaching Bombay in August 1870. He did not finally arrive in Zanzibar until 6 January 1871. Hoping for a great scoop, Stanley prepared for his mission to find Livingstone in great secrecy, revealing the true purpose of his expedition only to the American consul. He gathered a well-armed party of nearly 200 men and set off from Bagamoyo on the African coast on 21 March 1871. David Livingstone was rumoured to be based somewhere near Lake Tanganyika, over 600 miles to the west. Although Stanley's route was familiar to Arab traders, within a week his party was encountering difficulties arising from the climate, the terrain, and disease, including malaria, dysentery and smallpox. Within three months he reached the trading post of Tabora (Unyanyembe), where he became embroiled in a war between the local Arabs and Mirambo, chief of the Nyamwezi. At Tabora, he acquired a servant, a young boy named Kalulu, whom he later brought to England. After a further three months he travelled towards the south-west, on the most arduous stage of his journey. Just over a month later (the exact date is uncertain) he was doffing his helmet to Dr Livingstone at Ujiji, on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, greeting him with the famous salutation, 'Dr. Livingstone, I presume?'  (H. M. Stanley, How I Found Livingstone, 1872, chap. 11). Stanley brought Livingstone much-needed supplies and news, as well as a bottle of champagne which they shared on the day of his arrival. The two men spent four months together, for part of that time travelling on Lake Tanganyika, on remarkably friendly terms. But Livingstone politely refused to return with Stanley, preferring to continue his fruitless quest for the sources of the Nile. They parted at Tabora on 14 March 1872, Stanley reaching Zanzibar less than two months later. Stanley returned to London, by way of the Seychelles and Paris, where he handed over Livingstone's official dispatches to the British embassy. He landed at Dover on 1 August 1872. On his return to Britain, Stanley found himself in a storm of controversy. 'I am almost deafened with the hurly burly of strife', he records in his journal; 'every mail also brings proofs of English hate'  (H. M. Stanley, journal, 8 Aug 1872; copy at BL). His claims to have found Livingstone were ridiculed, the president of the Royal Geographical Society, Sir Henry Rawlinson, remarking that it must rather have been Livingstone who discovered Stanley. His descriptions of his travels at the geographical section of the British Association in Brighton were reported to have been described as 'sensational stories' by Francis Galton. His famous greeting at Ujiji was already being lampooned in the streets of London. And the growing rumours about his birth and parentage, which he attempted to suppress, were seized on by the press. Critics argued that Stanley lacked the credentials of either a gentleman or a scientist, and his claims to represent Livingstone particularly infuriated them. 'The high-priests of geographical orthodoxy', as Sidney Low describes them in the Dictionary of National Biography, did not emerge from this squabble with much honour. Equally, it must be acknowledged that Stanley's fiery temper and paranoid frame of mind did little to help his cause. Neither the subsequent reconciliation with the Royal Geographical Society, which awarded him its coveted gold medal, nor even an audience with Queen Victoria-who privately described him as 'a determined ugly little man, with a strong American twang'-failed to heal the wound which the initial reception had caused. 'All the actions of my life, and I may say all my thoughts, since 1872', he wrote long afterwards, 'have been strongly coloured by the storm of abuse and the wholly unjustifiable reports circulated about me then. So numerous were my enemies that my friends remained dumb'  (Autobiography, 289). Stanley's book How I Found Livingstone, famously described by Florence Nightingale as 'the very worst book on the very best subject I ever saw in my life', was nevertheless a huge success. Shortly before its publication in November 1872, he left England for America, with his servant Kalulu, to undertake the first of many lecture tours. Soon after his return he published My Kalulu, a romantic adventure story for children set in central Africa. He spent much of 1873 reporting first on the civil strife in Spain and then on Wolseley's Asante campaign (where he was joined by several other correspondents, including G. A. Henty and Winwood Reade). On his way home from west Africa in February 1874 he learned of Livingstone's death at Ilala. He acted as one of the pallbearers at Livingstone's funeral in Westminster Abbey on 18 April 1874. Soon afterwards, with Edwin Arnold, editor of the Daily Telegraph, he devised a plan for a major trans-African expedition intended to solve the remaining mysteries of African geography; it was sponsored by the proprietors of the Daily Telegraph and the New York Herald. (Stanley was later to name mountains and lakes after all of his sponsors.) Before his departure, Stanley became secretly engaged to a young American woman, Alice Pike, and she seems to have been the inspiration for the naming of the portable boat he had constructed for the expedition, the Lady Alice. This was one of several unsuccessful liaisons with women before his marriage in 1890. Trans-African expedition, 1874-1877 In August 1874, Stanley left London for Zanzibar. There he engaged over 300 porters, who were each to carry 60 pounds of goods, arms, and supplies, making it the largest African expedition ever seen. On 12 November the expedition left Zanzibar for the mainland, Stanley being accompanied by three young British volunteers, Francis and Edward Pocock, the sons of a Kentish sailor, and Frederick Barker, a clerk at the Langham Hotel in London (all three of his companions were to die in Africa). At this stage his hopes were concentrated on east Africa, as he aimed to settle conclusively the long-running controversies over its lakes and rivers. Travelling towards Lake Victoria, he soon became involved in violent encounters with local inhabitants which, together with the effects of disease, soon diminished the size of his party. From March 1875 the Lady Alice was used to circumnavigate Lake Victoria, during which Stanley met Mutesa, the powerful ruler of Uganda, whom he claimed to have converted to Christianity (and in so doing encouraged Christian missionaries to follow him into the region). At various places on the lake, notably Bumbiri Island, Stanley's party confronted the local population. Stanley's own reports of his violent 'chastisement' of the Bumbiri caused considerable controversy. During 1876 his party travelled on to the fringes of Lake Edward, and then, having met Mirambo, southwards to Lake Tanganyika. From there, they travelled west into the Lualaba basin and, in October 1876, Stanley had his first meeting with Hamid ibn Muhammad, the powerful Arab trader also known as Tippu Tib. After this meeting Stanley finally settled on a plan to follow the course of the Lualaba River to the north. From this point on, his expedition entered uncharted territory, travelling through the dense forests, fighting repeated battles, and negotiating the many perilous rapids on the Lualaba and Congo rivers. On 9 August 1877 what was left of Stanley's expedition reached Boma, having completed one of the most celebrated of all African expeditions of the nineteenth century. The violence which accompanied Stanley's expedition gave rise to controversy in the British press. His attempts at self-justification for the punishment of the Bumbiri were challenged: 'He has no concern with justice, no right to administer it; he comes with no sanction, no authority, no jurisdiction-nothing but explosive bullets and a copy of the Daily Telegraph'  (Saturday Review, 16 Feb 1878). His expedition was said by some to amount to exploration by warfare: 'Exploration under these conditions is, in fact, exploration plus buccaneering, and though the map may be improved and enlarged by the process, the cause of civilisation is not a gainer thereby, but a loser'  (Pall Mall Gazette, 11 Feb 1878). John Kirk, the Zanzibar consul, launched a discreet enquiry in 1878, and concluded in a confidential report that 'if the story of this expedition were known it would stand in the annals of African discovery unequalled for the reckless use of power that modern weapons placed in his hands over natives who never before heard a gun fired'  (1 May 1878, Foreign Office papers, PRO). But these misgivings were to be swamped by numerous tributes to Stanley's success in solving the remaining mysteries of African geography. On his return to Paris and London at the end of 1877, leading figures in geographical societies across Europe were lavish in their praise. In February 1878 he addressed the Royal Geographical Society twice, stubbornly defending his record against 'soft, sentimental, sugar-and-honey, milk-and-water kind of talk'  (PRGS, 22, 1878, 145). His two-volume work Through the Dark Continent, published in June 1878, became another best-seller. Nevertheless, the controversy added to Stanley's disillusionment with the British government, which was lukewarm about his schemes to further the commercial penetration of the Congo region. Opening up the Congo, 1879-1884 Stanley's association with the New York Herald came to an end in 1878, though not before its proprietor had apparently suggested that his next expedition should be to the north pole. His schemes for African commerce drew the attention of the Belgian king, Leopold II, who was captivated by the prospects of an African empire. Stanley met Leopold for the first time in Brussels on 10 June 1878, and by the end of the year (after a lecture tour in Britain) he had agreed to return to the Congo for five years in the service of the newly formed Comite d'Etudes du Haut-Congo (soon superseded by the Association Internationale du Congo). In August 1879 Stanley returned to the mouth of the Congo, intending to establish a series of permanent stations on the river. His work over the next five years was less that of an explorer than a road builder, earning him his famous nickname Bula Matari ('breaker of rocks'). Stanley constructed his first station 110 miles inland on a hill at Vivi, which he likened to the acropolis. Then he supervised the building of a road to the second station at Isangila, 50 miles further north, which was reached in December 1880. In June 1881 he arrived at Stanley Pool, where another station called Leopoldville was established near Kinshassa. In September 1882, having suffered a severe bout of fever, he took leave in Europe, where he learned more of French claims on territory in the Congo basin then being advanced by the explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza. Returning to the Congo, he gained further territory for the association, on the lower Congo, and then travelled to Leopoldville, finding it in a chaotic state. He signed treaties securing large tracts of land around the upper Congo for the association, establishing stations as far as Stanley Falls, 1000 miles from the Atlantic coast, in December 1883. On 10 June 1884, Francis de Winton having succeeded him in his work for Leopold, Stanley began his journey home. Two months later he saw his mother in London for the last time. Although it did not involve any significant geographical discoveries, Stanley considered his work on the Congo to be among the most important of his life. His book The Congo and the Founding of its Free State (2 vols., 1885) promoted what he called the 'gospel of enterprise'  (2.377), emphasizing both the commercial potential of the region and the hard labour necessary to exploit it. He revelled in the name Bula Matari, portraying his aim in the Congo as nothing less than the conquest of nature. On his return, however, Stanley found himself a small player in a much larger game of international diplomacy, culminating in the Berlin Congress of 1884-5, at which he acted as an adviser to the American delegation. The establishment of the Congo Free State, a territory of nearly 1 million square miles which Stanley had done much to secure, was one of the most significant events in the history of the so-called 'scramble for Africa'. Subsequent events were to show that Leopold's ambitions were not quite so philanthropic as Stanley represented them. But he denied to the last any responsibility for the atrocities that were to follow. Following his return from the Congo in 1884, Stanley delivered addresses on the potential for commerce in central Africa to numerous commercial, anti-slavery, and geographical societies in Britain, hoping to raise funds for a railway along the lower Congo. In April 1885, he quietly visited America to become naturalized as an American citizen, apparently hoping to secure his rights as an author of works published there. In March 1886, after a prolonged illness, he made a continental tour, taking in Nice, Florence, Rome, and Naples. On his return to Britain he went on a cruise around the Scottish isles with Dorothy Tennant (his future wife) and her mother, as guests of the shipping magnate William Mackinnon. The relief of Emin Pasha, 1886-1890 Shortly before Stanley left for a lecture tour of the United States in November 1886, Mackinnon suggested that he might lead another expedition to relieve Emin Pasha, the beleaguered governor of equatorial Sudan. On receiving a telegram from Mackinnon on 11 December 1886, Stanley interrupted his tour to return to Britain. Eduard Schnitzer, generally known as Emin Pasha, had appealed for help following the Mahdist uprising which engulfed General Gordon in 1885. Mackinnon, chairman of the British India Steam Navigation Company, led a campaign to raise funds for a relief expedition, with the support of various missionary, commercial, and geographical societies, as well as the Egyptian khedive. Although various alternative leaders were considered, including the explorer Joseph Thomson, Stanley was Mackinnon's choice. From the many applicants to join the expedition, Stanley chose four men trained in the British army (Major Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, Lieutenant William Stairs, Captain Robert Nelson, and Sergeant William Bonny), a one-time officer of the Congo state (John Rose Troup), and two gentlemen who donated 1000 each towards the expedition (Arthur Mounteney Jephson and James Jameson). These were subsequently joined by a doctor, Thomas Parke, and by another Congo adventurer, Herbert Ward. The expedition was heavily armed with Remington and Winchester rifles, a large quantity of ammunition, and the recently patented Maxim machine gun. On 21 January 1887 Stanley left London, travelling to Zanzibar by way of Cairo, where he met the khedive. At Zanzibar he negotiated an agreement with Tippu Tib, who was to accompany him round the Cape to the mouth of the Congo River. (This unlikely landing point for the expedition seems to have been chosen at Leopold's insistence, in order to further the interests of the Congo state.) After a difficult journey of a month, during which Stanley met Roger Casement, then in service on the Congo, the large party reached Leopoldville in April 1887. Here Stanley requisitioned three steamers, and the party continued in a flotilla up the Congo until its confluence with the Aruwimi River, where Stanley diverted to the village of Yambuya, to the east, which was reached on 15 June 1887. Here he decided to leave a rearguard, with instructions to wait until further supplies and reinforcements were received from Tippu Tib, while an advance party was to continue in search of Emin. The advance party of just under 400 men, led by Stanley, set off for Lake Albert on a 450 mile journey of over five months through the Ituri rain forest. Stanley's descriptions of the tortuous passage through the dense forest rank among the most celebrated of all his writings. Ravaged by the effects of disease, hunger, and warfare, his party reached Lake Albert in December 1887. Failing to find Emin (who was at Wadelai), they retreated to Ibwiri, where a camp (known as Fort Bodo) was constructed. On 29 April 1888 Stanley himself finally met Emin Pasha, drinking champagne with him on the shores of Lake Albert, as he had with Livingstone at Ujiji in 1871. Unable to persuade Emin to leave immediately, he decided to return to find his rear column, leaving Jephson with Emin. In August 1888, at Banalya, just 90 miles from Yambuya, he found the rear column in a state of disarray. Barttelot had been shot dead, Troup invalided home, Ward and Jameson (who was himself dying of fever) were in search of further reinforcements, and the entire party had been decimated by disease and violence. The rear column had languished for thirteen months, waiting in vain both for the promised supplies from Tippu Tib and for news of the advance guard. The rear column began the arduous journey on to Fort Bodo in August 1888, suffering further casualties on the way. On his arrival, in December 1888, Stanley learned that Emin had suffered the combined threat of a mutiny within his forces and renewed hostilities with the Mahdists. Emin's position appeared to be under threat, though he himself privately described Stanley's motives as 'egoism under the guise of philanthropy'  (Tagebucher, 14 Jan 1889). After much cajoling, Stanley at last persuaded him to leave Equatoria, the party setting out from the shores of Lake Albert on 10 April 1889. They travelled near the Ruwenzori range, the fabled Mountains of the Moon, then through the lakes region, reaching the coast on 4 December 1889. By now, Stanley's relationship with Emin was at a low ebb, and he left Bagamoyo for Zanzibar without his prize. From there Stanley travelled to Cairo, where he spent two months writing his famous account of the expedition, In Darkest Africa (2 vols., 1890). He finally returned to London in April 1890. Honours and awards were showered on him by chambers of commerce and geographical societies throughout Europe, and he was awarded honorary degrees by the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Durham, and Edinburgh. A reception for him, organized by the Royal Geographical Society at the Albert Hall on 5 May 1890, was attended by 10,000 people, including the prince of Wales. Lecture tours followed, with Stanley speaking throughout Britain and America, where he travelled in a luxurious pullman car named Henry M. Stanley. Although Stanley was widely acclaimed as a hero on his return to Britain, the Emin Pasha relief expedition was far from a success. From the start, as even Sidney Low's sympathetic portrait in the Dictionary of National Biography records, 'it was hampered by divided aims and inconsistent purposes'. Others went further in their criticism, Sir William Harcourt describing it as one of those 'filibustering expeditions in the mixed guise of commerce, religion, geography and imperialism, under which names any and every guise of atrocity is regarded as permissible'  (A. G. Gardiner, Life of Sir William Harcourt, 1923, 2.94). In addition to the 'relief' of the unwilling Pasha, Stanley had a number of other objectives, including the enhancement of the authority of both Leopold's Congo state in the west and Mackinnon's newly formed Imperial British East Africa Company in the east. More immediately, he had hoped to obtain Emin's valuable cache of ivory. His imperious manner alienated even the most loyal of his men, and several of the surviving members of the expedition and their relatives publicly contested Stanley's account of their ordeal. The strikingly bitter controversy over the fate of the rear column, especially after the publication of Barttelot's diaries in October 1890, raised questions not only about Stanley's leadership, but also about the wider purposes of the expedition. Leading figures in the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and Aborigines Protection Society charged him with using slaves as porters, and complained that the expedition had in fact opened up new routes for slave traders. These various challenges to Stanley's version of events were gleefully reported in the press, and resulted in numerous attacks, both sober and satirical, such as Henry Fox-Bourne's The other Side of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1891) and Francis Burnand's A New Light Thrown across the Keep it Quite Darkest Africa (1891). While Stanley had many influential supporters, the multiplication of different accounts of the expedition undermined his reputation just at the moment he had hoped it would finally be secured. Final years, marriage, and death On 12 July 1890 Stanley was married in Westminster Abbey to Dorothy Tennant (1851-1925), an artist, the second daughter of Charles Tennant, a landowner of Cadoxton, Glamorgan. They spent their honeymoon in Hampshire and then Switzerland and northern Italy, and soon after travelled together to the United States where Stanley conducted a lecture tour. In 1891 they left England for another demanding tour of Australia and New Zealand, returning in April 1892. A month later he was re-naturalized as a British citizen. Although there were attempts to persuade him to return to Africa, Stanley, with his wife's encouragement, decided to embark on a parliamentary career as a Liberal Unionist candidate for North Lambeth. Having been defeated in June 1892, he was elected in July 1895, spending the intervening years engaged in writing and at leisure. His five years as a member of parliament were undistinguished, and he frequently complained of the long hours and cumbersome procedures of the House of Commons. In October 1897, having received an invitation to attend the opening of the Bulawayo railway, Stanley travelled to South Africa. After visiting the Victoria Falls, he toured the Transvaal, the Orange Free State, and Natal, and at Pretoria he met President Kruger, whom he disliked intensely. He published an account of the journey in his book Through South Africa (1898). He was a strong supporter of the imperial cause during the South African War. In 1899, Stanley moved to a mock-Tudor mansion at Furze Hill, Pirbright, Surrey, with his wife and Denzil Stanley, a young child they had adopted in 1896. Most of his remaining years were divided between his London home, at 2 Richmond Terrace, Westminster, and Furze Hill, where he devoted himself enthusiastically to draining, planting, renovating, and building. Various parts of the grounds were named after places on his travels; the lake thus became 'Stanley Pool', the pine trees the 'Ituri forest', a stream the 'Congo'. In 1899 Stanley was made a knight grand cross in the Order of the Bath. For the remaining years of his life he suffered from a variety of debilitating illnesses, requiring frequent medical attention. His last public appearance was at the coronation of Edward VII in August 1902. In April 1903 he suffered a paralysing stroke; and a year later, on 10 May 1904, he died at 2 Richmond Terrace. His wish to be buried in Westminster Abbey, alongside Livingstone, was refused by the dean, apparently due to his mixed reputation. Following a funeral service in the abbey, he was buried on 17 May in the churchyard at Pirbright. Lady Stanley, who married Henry Curtis in 1907, placed above his grave a granite monolith from Dartmoor bearing the inscription 'Henry Morton Stanley, Bula Matari, 1841-1904, Africa'. Stanley's contribution and reputation Stanley's contribution to the history of African exploration remains a matter of contention. On the one hand, he is generally acknowledged to have settled many of the long-running controversies over the sources of the Nile and the geography of the great lakes. On the other hand, the style of his expedition-making marked a new phase in the history of exploration, virtually erasing the distinction between geography and warfare. 'History will say of Stanley', observed Harry Johnston, 'that he was the Napoleon Bonaparte of African exploration, with all Napoleon's greatness and some of his failings'  (H. Johnston, The Speaker, 15 Nov 1890). Stanley's passion for exploration was apiece with his colonizing zeal; and while his role in the scramble for Africa was often indirect, his work on behalf of the Congo Free State and the Imperial British East Africa Company left its mark on the map (literally so, through Stanleyville in the Belgian Congo and Mount Stanley in the Ruwenzori Mountains). Stanley's attitude towards Africans was no more brutal than that of many African explorers, such as Samuel Baker or Richard Burton; indeed, the charges against him in this respect stemmed as much from his writing as from his actions. Throughout his life after 1872, Stanley portrayed himself as Livingstone's successor, though he once distinguished his own approach to exploration as follows: Each man has his own way. His, I think, had its defects, though the old man, personally, has been almost Christ-like for goodness, patience and self-sacrifice. The selfish and wooden-headed world requires mastering, as well as loving charity; for man is a composite of the spiritual and earthly. (Autobiography, 295) This quest for mastery was an enduring theme in Stanley's voluminous writings, both published and unpublished. His was a life of relentless work, a sustained exercise in the application of will-power. Describing Stanley's visit to Newstead in 1872, Augusta Fraser recalled that 'his whole personality at this time gave one the impression of overwhelming and concentrated force, a human explosive power that only required a mere chance to turn towards good or evil'  (Fraser, 194). His sensitive and introspective manner made him many enemies and few close friends, and he was always quick to take offence. Throughout his life, Stanley was in every way a masterful story-teller; so traumatic were the memories of his youth that he did everything he could to obscure the truth from public view, fabricating for himself a new identity in the process. His enormous drive won him notoriety as well as fame, though he defended his life's record to the very last: 'I was not sent into this world to be happy, nor to search for happiness. I was sent for a special work'  (Autobiography, xvii). Felix Driver Sources  J. A. Casada, Dr David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley: an annotated bibliography (1976) + T. Heyse, Bibliographie de Henry Morton Stanley, 1841-1904 (1961) + H. M. Stanley, Autobiography, ed. D. Stanley (1909) + DNB + R. Hall, Stanley: an adventurer explored (1974) + F. McLynn, Stanley: the making of an African explorer (1989) + F. McLynn, Stanley: sorcerer's apprentice (1991) + I. Anstruther, I presume: Stanley's triumph and despair (1956) + F. Driver, 'Henry Morton Stanley and his critics', Past and Present, 133 (1991), 134-66 + L. M. Jones and I. W. Jones, H. M. Stanley and Wales (1972) + C. Rowlands, H. M. Stanley (1872) + A. Fraser, Livingstone and Newstead (1913) + J. E. Ritchie, The life and discoveries of Dr Livingstone (1877) [incl. criticisms of Stanley repr. from the missionary press] + Stanley's despatches to the New York Herald, ed. N. R. Bennett (1970) + [F. Galton], 'Letters of Henry Morton Stanley from equatorial Africa to the Daily Telegraph', EdinR, 147 (1878), 166-91 + H. Yule and H. M. Hyndman, Mr Henry Morton Stanley and the Royal Geographical Society (1878) + I. R. Smith, The Emin Pasha relief expedition, 1886-1890 (1972) + Die Tagebucher von Dr. Emin Pascha, ed. F. Stuhlmann, 5 vols. (1917-27) + The life of E. M. Barttelot, from his letters and diary, ed. W. G. Barttelot (1890) + The diary of A. J. Mounteney Jephson: Emin Pasha relief expedition, 1887-1889, ed. D. Middleton, Hakluyt Society, extra ser., 40 (1969) + E. Marston, How Stanley wrote 'In darkest Africa' (1890) + H. R. Fox-Bourne, The other side of the Emin Pasha relief expedition (1891) + F. C. Burnand, A new light thrown across the keep it quite darkest Africa (1891) + A. C. Cairns, Prelude to imperialism: British reactions to central African society, 1840-1890 (1965) Archives Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, notebooks, journals, maps, drawings, corresp., and drafts of published works + NL Wales, letters + RGS, corresp. and papers of Stanley and his wife + Royal Palace, Brussels, archives + Wellcome L. + West Glamorgan Archive Service, Swansea, corresp., estate account books, cash book, and notebooks | BL, papers and corresp. of John Bolton, incl. corresp. with and papers relating to Stanley, Add. MS 43411 + Bodl. RH, letters to Francis Pocock and Edward Pocock + NL Scot., corresp. with David Livingstone and family + Oregon UL, letters to International Association of the Congo + SOAS, letters to Sir William Mackinnon + Trinity Cam., letters to Mr and Mrs F. W. H. Myers Likenesses  photographs, 1861-78, RGS · London Stereoscopic Co., photograph, c.1872, NPG [see illus.] · C. Dubray, bronze bust, exh. RA 1878, RGS · R. Gibb, oils, 1885, Livingstone Memorial, Blantyre · H. von Herkomer, oils, exh. RA 1887, Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery · H. von Angeli, oils, 1890, Royal Collection · R. Lehmann, drawing, 1890, BM · E. M. Merrick, oils, 1890, probably RGS · E. Myers, photograph, 1890?, NPG · D. Stanley, oils, c.1895, probably priv. coll. · M. Beerbohm, caricature, ink and wash drawing, 1897, NPG · B. Stone, photograph, 1897, Birm. CL · Barraud, photograph, NPG; repro. in Men and Women of the Day, 3 (1890) · H. von Herkomer, etching, NPG · Lock & Whitfield, woodburytype, NPG; repro. in T. Cooper, Men of mark: a gallery of contemporary portraits (1880) · London Stereoscopic Co., photographs, NPG · Russell & Sons, photographs, NPG · caricature, chromolithograph, NPG; repro. in VF (2 Nov 1872) · caricatures, repro. in Punch (1890) · photographs, Livingstone Memorial, Blantyre · photographs, RGS · print (after H. J. Stock), NPG · prints, BM, NPG · prints (with Livingstone), Livingstone Memorial, Blantyre Wealth at death  145,865 10s. 8d.: probate, 29 June 1904, CGPLA Eng. & Wales

T

D. A. Thomas MP for Merthyr Tydfil 1888-1910. Proprietor of Cambrian Collieries. Organized food supplies during the war. Prime mover in Cymru Fydd of 1892

Dylan Thomas First poetry in 1934.

Sydney Gilchrist Thomas of Blaenafon. He developed an important process for processing steel from high-phosphorous ores, in 1878.

John Toshack

Bonnie Tyler

V

Carole Vordermann

W

Alfred Russell Wallace from Monmouthshire, came up with the theory of evolution.

H. Percy Wilkins He produced the largest map of the Moon prior to the space age, about 7.5 meters in diameter. It took him 40 years.

Morgan Williams mathematician and master weaver. Leading Chartist.

Zephaniah Williams of Nant-y-Glo. Mineral agent and pub owner. Transported to Australia where he a made and lost a fortune.

Walter Wingfield of Llanelidan, Clwyd invented sphairistike, today's lawn tennis.

Y

Elihu Yale, founder of Yale University, was born in Boston of Welsh parents. He later became High Sheriff of Denbigh in 1704 and is buried in St. Giles Church, Wrexham.

One of America's oldest and grandest universities has used all its might to force a new college in Wales to change its name or face a huge legal bill.

Yale university insisted that Yale college, in Wrexham, would cause confusion with its name and website, and after the threat of legal action - an intimidatory letter, claimed college principal Emlyn Jones - the Welsh institution caved in.

Yale college, founded in 1993, took the name from Elihu Yale, a 17th century millionaire whose elegant tomb is in the local churchyard. But Yale university, which had altered its own name - from the collegiate school at Saybrook - when the same Mr Yale donated gifts and a portrait of George I in 1718, decided it could not tolerate the effrontery.

Mr Jones could have pointed out that Mr Yale had family links with Wrexham and, though born in Massachusetts, had left the colony aged three, never returned and certainly never seen the Yale campus at New Haven, Connecticut. Yale, too, is an anglicisation of the Welsh ll, which refers to a limestone outcrop near Wrex-ham. "That name predates Columbus by 500 years, so we seem to have history on our side," mused Mr Jones.

But Yale, whose alumni include Bill Clinton, Gerald Ford and George Bush, plus Samuel Morse of code fame, and actor Paul Newman, stood firm, and the deal now is that the college will keep its Welsh name (coleg ll) but in English becomes Yale college of Wrexham.

Mr Yale, who died in 1721, is buried beneath his own epitaph - which sets his name in a worldly context: "Born in America, in Europe bred, In Africa travell'd and in Asia wed, Where long he liv'd and thriv'd; in London dead; Much good, some ill, he did; so hope's all even. And that his soul thro' mercy's gone to Heaven."